本文是一篇Report代写范文，题目为The report of water supply problem of Brazi，范文主要讨论了巴西供水问题。发展中国家的一个地区正面临供水问题。政府正在寻找一个负担得起的新的解决方案来解决这个问题，并要求你调查不同的供水方法。写一份报告，比较该地区两种或三种不同的供水方式。报告结束时，提出最佳供水方法的建议。
Task: This is a written assessment as follows:任务：这是一个书面评估，如下所示：
A region in the developing world is facing a water-supply problem. The government is looking for an affordable, new solution to this problem and has asked you to investigate different methods of water provision.Write a report that compares two or three different ways to supply water in this region. At the end of the report, make a recommendation of the best method of water provision.
• Your report must use sub-headings and a numbering system throughout.
• The report should be 1000 words (+/-10%).
• While you can describe existing solutions in your background section, your suggested options should be either improvements on these (clearly described), or new solutions.
Use of Sources
• You must refer to secondary sources to support your ideas. You may use materials from the Student Pack and the reading list provided, but you must also refer to at least five academic sources from your own research.
• You should refer to data where appropriate.
• Support should be synthesised where appropriate.
• You must provide in-text citations and final references for all sources you refer to in your report.
• You must use English language sources – you should not translate ideas from non-English sources.
You will be assessed on:
• The relevance of your ideas; the effectiveness of your comparisons and recommendation(s); your critical analysis of relevant issues.
• The structure of your report (completeness; organisation of ideas; use of headings and numbering; linking of ideas).
• Your choice of relevant and appropriate source material – including specific examples and data – to support your ideas.
• Your incorporation of source material including synthesis, paraphrase/summary, in-text citations and final references.
• Appropriate and accurate use of English, especially academic register and style; adherence to all task guidelines.
Submission Guidelines - failure to follow these will result in a lower mark:
• You must submit an electronic copy of your essay to Turn It In. You must also submit one hard copy of your report to your tutor in review week 1.3.
• Use Arial font size 12 and use 1.5 line spacing between lines.
• Your assessment must include a title page containing the following information:
i. Module Code (FC511)
ii. Class/Group: (e.g. Group A)
iii. Module Title (Skills for Study)
iv. Assessment Title (Report)
v. Assignment Title (full title)
vi. Tutor’s Name
vii. Student ID Number: (please add your ID number only and NOT your name)
viii. Date of Submission:
ix. Word count of the essay (not just the word limit)
• Each page of your assignment should have a header containing your student ID number, module code (e.g. FC511) and the name of your class tutor. Do not write your full name.
• All pages should be numbered and stapled together.
Draft report - week 10
Final summative report – review week 1
The report of water supply problem of Brazil
Table of contents
The report of water supply of Brazil 1
1. Introduction 1
2. background 2
3. Presentation and comparison of options 2
4. conclusions and recommendations 4
5. references 5
Brazil has 8% of the world's fresh water resources, but the distribution is very uneven, about 70% of the fresh water concentration in the amazon region, inhabited by only 5% of Brazil's residents. Because of this, the protection and rational use of water resources of Brazil task is very heavy. There is virtually no water management in the north and Midwest(Goharian, 2016). Other parts of the water quantity and water quality problems are more urgent. Because of the understandable, these problems highlight areas, especially the southeast area that got the more right to grant optimal management for both water. What is important, however, is that water management in both regions cannot be ignored, and its agricultural and mining industries are developing rapidly, which has put pressure on water resources and therefore needs more and better prevention policies.
Although Brazil is rich in water resources, the population is concentrated in economically developed areas such as cities, and the shortage of water is still outstanding(Samora, 2016). The cultivated land has only occupied the land area and irrigated area. In the city, the water supply rate has been reached, but in the countryside only, the sewage treatment rate is not(Goharian, 2016). In years ago, by the water supply and sewage, enterprise invested by the government, the situation began to change, since the Brazilian federal government and state government also part of the water company privatization, ease the pressure on the government investment. Many Brazilian water companies have been reformed by modern enterprise system, operated and listed in the public judicial mode, and obtained more loans and financial support(Goharian, 2016).
3. Presentation and comparison of options
First, in Brazil's national water management system, the water authority is a distinctive group that operates as the executive secretariat of the river basin commission(Samora, 2016). Although the basin committee is closely related to the water authority, the two are very different in their use, and the main difference lies in their own nature and organizational structure. The basin commission is known as the "water council", and the water authority is more like a private enterprise or a state-owned enterprise. The function of water administration have water quantity calculation and statistics of this jurisdiction is responsible for the water user registration. Authorized water charge is to evaluate water resources must be supported by the water project, and will assess opinions submitted about treasury to management supervision and management of water use of water resources information system(Samora, 2016). They have closed financial service agreement, contract to prepare budget proposals and submit river basin commission arrangement of water resources research item. To develop water gauge and submit the river, basin commission review proposed classification, water resources, water use and water engineering construction fund allocation proposal. The establishment of the water authority shall be submitted by the river basin committee and approved by the federal or state water resources commission(Samora, 2016).
Second, for reducing flood and immigration, Brazil in hydropower development, tend to the original level of power station, now divided into secondary or multistage development, in order to reduce the reservoir flood and move people, try to protect the environment. In the case of shortage of funds in the past, we have used high dam to develop hydropower station to save investment. Money is not a problem at home, but immigration is a big problem, making up a big part of the investment(Sahin, 2016). This problem can be solved effectively by using multi-stage development. It is necessary to continue to track inspection measures to perform as a result, in order to make the necessary adjustments, reduce the deviation in the process of execution, promote into the federal, state, and local level effective integration between the various stakeholders(Goharian, 2016).
Third, considering the amazon river basin in Brazil, the importance of the ecological environment is of crucial and given the development of hydropower station on river ecological impact is not fully known, although amazon river trunk stream containing the huge hydropower resources, but Brazil by law that stipulates the amazon river hydropower development is forbidden, in order to protect the amazon river in the domain of the original ecology, left for future generation after a river teeming with life(Sahin, 2016). It should consider the possibility of establishing a water market and a water trading system, as some other countries have already done(Nickson, 2016). These measures can improve the efficiency of water use by giving priority to water use for high-value water use. By Brazilian law, the implementation of water resources management model with integrated water resources management of international trends, to follow the principle of decentralized management, including hydrological basin level through the river basin commission will implement a wide range of public participation and the water resources, as a kind of economic value of the property value assessment.
4. conclusions and recommendations
Effective integrated water management is a challenge in many countries. For Brazil, a country with an uneven distribution of water and rapid economic growth, it is a huge challenge. Therefore, more efforts need to be made to fully implement the water resources management model formulated by the state. Based on the analysis of Brazil's water management model and the patterns adopted by other countries, including developed and developing countries, the Brazilian model should be improved in the following aspect(Nickson, 2016).
To strengthen coordination between the federal government and the state government, improve efficiency and strengthen inter-governmental integration. in the areas with serious water quality problems, the water quality control mechanism should be implemented in the water body classification, and the water body should be classified according to the water body. Since there is no special fund for comprehensive management of water resources, some water bills can be allocated for comprehensive management of water resources. to accelerate the comprehensive management of water resources in less authorized areas, focusing on prevention and management. Since there is no water resources comprehensive management of special funds, considering that Brazil's fastest-growing major hydropower is that some areas, from the power company compensation to the Brazilian government take out part of the funds are used for water resources management in these areas(Goharian, 2016).
Goharian, E., Burian, S. J., Bardsley, T., & Strong, C. (2016). Incorporating potential severity into vulnerability assessment of water supply systems under climate change conditions. Journal of Water Resources Planning & Management, 142(2), 04015051.
Nickson, A. (2016). The public-private mix in urban water supply. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 63(2), 165-186.
Sahin, O., Siems, R. S., Stewart, R. A., & Porter, M. G. (2016). Paradigm shift to enhanced water supply planning through augmented grids, scarcity pricing and adaptive factory water. Environmental Modelling & Software, 75(C), 348-361.
Samora, I., Franca, M. J., Schleiss, A. J., & Ramos, H. M. (2016). Simulated annealing in optimization of energy production in a water supply network. Water Resources Management, 30(4), 1533-1547.