成功案例

Essay代写案例-为什么我们没有预防艾滋病的疫苗?

来源:原创| 作者:DissertationMaster| 时间:2020-09-10 15:00
      本文是一篇优秀的essay代写范文,题目为Why don't we have a vaccine to prevent AIDS?文章内容主要讨论了为什么我们没有艾滋病的疫苗。获得性免疫缺陷综合症或通常简称为AIDS,是当今人类面临的对我们健康的最大威胁之一。它是由人类免疫缺陷病毒或HIV引起的。换句话说,艾滋病是艾滋病病毒感染的晚期。自1982年春季在美国报道第一例艾滋病以来,已有3500万人感染了艾滋病毒,约有2500万人由于艾滋病并发症而丧生。
 
预防艾滋病插画
 
Why don't we have a vaccine to prevent AIDS?
 
      Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or commonly abbreviated as AIDS, is one of the biggest threats to our health that we human beings are facing nowadays. It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. In another word, AIDS is the late stage of HIV disease. Since the first AIDS was reported in the United States in the spring of 1982, more than 35 million people have contracted the HIV, and about 25 million people lost their life because of the complications caused by AIDS. HIV is fatal in that it attacks out bodies’ immune systems, which produce white blood cells and antibodies responsible for attacking viruses and bacteria. It is as if that the HIVs are spies that ambushed in the barracks of the forts and disable all the soldiers. Without soldiers (immune system), the forts (out bodies) are much easier to be conquered by other ailments, like flues.
      获得性免疫缺陷综合症(Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,简称AIDS)是当今人类面临的最大健康威胁之一。它是由人类免疫缺陷病毒或艾滋病毒引起的。换言之,艾滋病是HIV疾病的晚期。自1982年春美国报告第一例艾滋病以来,已有3500多万人感染艾滋病毒,约2500万人因艾滋病并发症而丧生。艾滋病毒是致命的,因为它攻击人体的免疫系统,免疫系统产生白细胞和抗体,负责攻击病毒和细菌。兵营里所有的士兵都被伏击了。如果没有士兵(免疫系统),堡垒(外躯壳)更容易被其他疾病征服,比如烟道。
 
      Some people may ask that since we have already defeated those seemingly invincible diseases such as measles, smallpox and mumps by using vaccine, is there a vaccine for HIV? Although scientists have been struggling for years trying to create vaccines for the AIDS, unfortunately, completely competent vaccine has not been invented yet. That is because HIV is a very complex, highly changeable virus, which makes speedy development of a successful preventive HIV vaccine extremely difficult.
      有些人可能会问,既然我们已经用疫苗战胜了麻疹、天花、腮腺炎等看似无敌的疾病,那么有没有艾滋病疫苗?尽管科学家们多年来一直在努力研制艾滋病疫苗,但不幸的是,还没有研制出完全合格的疫苗。这是因为HIV是一种非常复杂、高度易变的病毒,这使得迅速研制成功的预防性HIV疫苗极为困难。
 
      HIV is spread when infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets into another person. Thus, there are several ways for the HIV to transmit: sexual transmission, blood transmission and vertical transmission. The current worldwide expansion of the AIDS epidemic is primarily driven by the sexual transmission, either heterosexual or homosexual. Also, transmission of HIV can occur following transfusion of blood product derived from an infected person’s blood. The perinatal transmission of HIV virtually account for all new HIV infections in children. As long as we know these means by which HIV spread, we can take measures to avoid AIDS by these following ways. Firstly, practice safe sex. Remember to use a condom with spermicide for anal, vaginal or oral penetration. Secondly, avoid sharing needles with other person. Thirdly, use medial latex gloves if we will be coming into contact with another person’s blood, urine, feces or semen. Indeed, HIV is fatal, but as long as we follow the rule listed above, there is no chance for us to contract the HIV. Meanwhile, we should also know that the HIV is not transmitted through daily hugging, kissing, message, shaking hands, insect bites and sharing showers or toilets with someone else with HIV.
      当受感染的血液、精液、阴道液或母乳进入他人体内时,艾滋病毒就会传播。因此,艾滋病病毒有几种传播途径:性传播、血液传播和垂直传播。目前艾滋病在世界范围内的蔓延主要是由性传播所驱动的,无论是异性恋还是同性恋。此外,艾滋病毒的传播可能发生在输血后从受感染者的血液中提取的血液制品。围产期艾滋病毒的传播几乎占了所有儿童新感染艾滋病毒的原因。只要我们知道艾滋病病毒传播的这些途径,我们就可以采取以下几种方法来避免艾滋病。首先,实行安全性行为。记得在肛门、阴道或口腔内使用带杀精剂的避孕套。第二,避免与他人共用针头。第三,如果我们要接触到他人的血液、尿液、粪便或精液,请戴上中间乳胶手套。的确,艾滋病毒是致命的,但只要我们遵守上述规则,我们就没有机会感染艾滋病毒。同时,我们也应该知道,艾滋病毒不会通过每天的拥抱、接吻、留言、握手、虫咬以及与其他艾滋病毒携带者共用淋浴或厕所等方式传播。
 
      As what I mentioned above, there is no cure for AIDS currently, but it may be treated with number of different antiretroviral drugs, often in combination. Early treatment with retrovirals, as soon as a person tests positive for infection with HIV, has been shown in studies to reduce to the transmission of HIV. Drugs such as AZT, DDI, and 3TC, which are reverse transcriptase inhibitors, have proved effective in delaying the onset of symptoms in certain subsets of infected individuals. The addition of a protease inhibitor, such as saquinovir, amprenavir, and atazanavir has proved very effective, but the drug combination does not eliminate the virus from the body. Thus, the current treatments are aimed to make patients live longer, lower their risk of developing non-HIV-related illness and to reduce the chances to transmit HIV to others.
      正如我在上面提到的,目前还没有治愈艾滋病的方法,但是可以用许多不同的抗逆转录病毒药物来治疗,通常是联合用药。研究表明,一旦一个人的HIV感染检测呈阳性,早期使用逆转录病毒治疗可以减少HIV的传播。AZT、DDI和3TC等药物是逆转录酶抑制剂,已证明能有效地延缓感染者某些亚群症状的发生。添加蛋白酶抑制剂,如沙喹诺韦、安普那韦和阿塔扎那韦已被证明是非常有效的,但这种药物组合并不能将病毒从体内清除。因此,目前的治疗方法旨在延长患者的寿命,降低他们患非艾滋病毒相关疾病的风险,并减少将艾滋病毒传染给他人的机会。
 
      A good piece of news is that the Thai HIV vaccine efficacy trial, known as RV144, demonstrated that latest vaccine was safe and modestly effective in preventing HIV infection. Therefore, we have to be confident, believing that we will finally defeat the AIDS just as we defeat those so-called cureless diseases like plague or smallpox hundreds years ago!
      一个好消息是,被称为RV144的泰国HIV疫苗功效试验证明,最新疫苗在预防HIV感染方面是安全和适度有效的。因此,我们必须有信心,相信我们终将战胜艾滋病,就像我们战胜几百年前瘟疫、天花等所谓的无药疾病一样!
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